TABLE 1

Effects of pilocarpine hydrochloride and acetylcholine on hemocyte cellularity and subtype characteristics in vitro and in vivo

Condition
and treatmenta
CellularityHemocyte subsetbNoduleC. albicansc
PrGrPlCoSpAdOeSizeMelanization
In vitro
    CTRLow++++
    SC5314High+++++++++++Medium+++++
    AChHigh+++++++Medium
    PHClLow++++
    SC5314/AChHigh+++++++++++Large+
    SC5314/PHClHigh++++++++++Small+
In vivo
    CTRLow++++
    SC5314High++++++++++++Large++++++
    AChIntermediate+++++++Medium
    PHClLow+++++
    SC5314/AChIntermediate++++++++++++Large+
    SC5314/PHClIntermediate+++++++++++Small+
  • a Galleria mellonella larvae were inoculated with PBS (control [CTR]), C. albicans SC5314, acetylcholine (ACh), pilocarpine hydrochloride (PHCl), C. albicans plus ACh (SC3514/ACh), and C. albicans plus PHCl (SC5314/PHCl).

  • b Pr, prohemocytes; Gr, granulocytes; Pl, plasmatocytes; Co, coagulocytes; Sp, spherulocytes; Ad, adipocytes; Oe, oenocytes. Immune cell subtype quantification was scored as follows: −, absent/rare; +, 1 to 10%; ++, 11 to 30%; +++, 31 to 50%.

  • c C. albicans presence was quantified as follows: −, absent; +, few cells; ++, multiple yeast agglomerate usually embedded in nodules; +++, abundant yeasts and/or hyphae with widespread diffusion in nodules.