TABLE 2

Effect size and significance of PERMANOVA tests (via the Adonis function in vegan in R) of the metadata in our data seta

VariableFull data setMallards (A. platyrhynchos) removedIndividual species
All birds
(n = 291)
IAV birds
(n = 123)
IAV+ birds
(n = 168)
All birds
(n = 132)
IAV birds
(n = 68)
IAV+ birds
(n = 77)
A. acuta
(n = 31)
A. americana
(n = 25)
A. carolinensis
(n = 19)
A. clypeata
(n = 56)
A. platyrhynchos
(n = 160)
R2PR2PR2PR2PR2PR2PR2PR2PR2PR2PR2P
Influenza0.01290.001N/AN/A0.016670.001N/AN/A0.043430.0170.064650.0160.07580.0130.048960.0010.041880.001
Species0.029220.0010.102230.0010.037890.0010.036220.0010.085330.0010.089790.048N/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
Location0.051670.0010.100450.0010.078310.0010.032740.0010.043710.0010.042830.0010.077240.0420.043380.320.08820.0020.019250.2690.066490.001
S_SY0.075470.0010.125670.0010.100720.0010.065970.0010.05230.0010.068670.0040.08780.0010.193980.0260.195420.0060.10340.0010.07070.001
HA0.083970.001N/A0.121990.0010.111160.007N/A0.179280.1920.151340.0250.173360.2310.238950.1010.222630.0030.129140.001
NA0.069510.001N/A0.097990.0010.109740.009N/A0.167790.130.104350.2740.175940.1720.290910.1390.218430.020.126440.001
HANA0.159190.001N/A0.255130.0010.182450.117N/A0.323160.35430.178120.1080.21270.3110.34490.2120.332220.2860.218490.001
Sex0.010510.0020.02530.0020.013950.0780.016850.1610.037590.0140.024610.7360.04260.0250.079030.6420.105730.7280.037320.3550.015610.033
  • a Tests were conducted on unweighted UniFrac distance matrices that were subsampled in various ways. First column is the effect size (R2), and second is the P value. P values ≤ 0.001 are indicated in bold, and those less than 0.005 are indicated in italic. N/A, not available.