TABLE 3

Median normalized abundance for AMRs identified by MEGARes that were significantly different between the high- and low-Bifidobacterium samples in Bangladesha

Database level and AMR class, mechanism, or group valueMedian normalized abundance in samples (range) with:Kruskal-Wallis test P value
High BifidobacteriumLow Bifidobacterium
Class
    Aminocoumarins0.000275 (0–0.00603)0.0236 (0–0.0708)0.000141
    Aminoglycosides0.00374 (0–0.147)0.0768 (0.00526–0.785)0.000987
    Bacitracin0 (0–0.0166)0.0116 (0.000491–0.129)0.000242
    Beta-lactams0.00437 (0–0.068)0.221 (0.0162–1.33)0.0000127
    Cationic antimicrobial peptides0 (0–0.0594)0.0322 (0–0.736)0.00186
    Elfamycins0.00325 (0–0.0181)0.0870 (0.00977–0.231)0.00000582
    Fluoroquinolones0.00136 (0–0.0430)0.100 (0.00238–0.448)0.0000588
    Multidrug resistance (MDR)0.00672 (0–0.319)0.567 (0.0204–4.19)0.000122
    Rifampin0.00241 (0–0.0114)0.0920 (0.00233–0.134)0.0000150
    Sulfonamides0.000658 (0–0.00883)0.0273 (0.000373–0.290)0.000181
    Macrolides, lincosamides, and streptogramins (MLS)0.367 (0.224–2.74)0.0760 (0.000908–0.273)0.00000503
Mechanism
    Aminocoumarin-resistant DNA topoisomerases (class aminocoumarins)0.000275 (0–0.00603)0.0236 (0–0.0708)0.000141
    Aminoglycoside efflux pumps (class aminoglycosides)0.000124 (0–0.0266)0.0251 (0.00184–0.371)0.000362
    Aminoglycoside efflux regulator (class aminoglycosides)0 (0–0.0166)0.00577 (0–0.147)0.000348
    Class A beta-lactamases (class beta-lactamases)0 (0–0.0455)0.0591 (0.00160–0.725)0.0000229
    EF-Tu inhibition (class elfamycins)0.00325 (0–0.018)0.0870 (0.00977–0.231)0.00000582
    Fluoroquinolone-resistant DNA topoisomerases (class fluoroquinolones)0.00136 (0–0.0430)0.0729 (0.00238–0.447)0.0000496
    MDR mutant porin proteins (class MDR)0.000356 (0–0.00686)0.0227 (0.000493–0.105)0.0000320
    MDR regulator (class MDR)0.00400 (0–0.137)0.244 (0.0109–1.54)0.0000874
    Multidrug efflux pumps (class MDR)0.00237 (0–0.194)0.293 (0.00892–2.56)0.000181
    Penicillin binding protein (class beta-lactams)0.00354 (0–0.0184)0.0819 (0.00699–0.345)0.0000735
    Rifampin-resistant beta-subunit of RNA polymerase RpoB (class rifampin)0.00241 (0–0.0114)0.0920 (0.00233–0.134)0.0000150
    Sulfonamide-resistant dihydropteroate synthases (class sulfonamides)0.000658 (0–0.00883)0.0273 (0.000373–0.290)0.000181
    Undecaprenyl pyrophosphate phosphatase (class bacitracin)0 (0–0.0166)0.0116 (0.000491–0.129)0.000242
    23S rRNA methyltransferases (class MLS)0.366 (0.220–2.72)0.0140 (0–0.203)0.00000281
Group
    ACRB (class MDR)0 (0–0.00455)0.0141 (0–0.0836)0.0000464
    ACRD (class aminoglycoside)0 (0–0.0117)0.0110 (0.000619–0.114)0.000248
    AMPH (class beta-lactam)0.000454 (0–0.00872)0.0176 (0.00131–0.123)0.0000796
    ASMA (class MDR)0.000312 (0–0.00944)0.0163 (0.000575–0.108)0.000106
    BACA (class bacitracin)0 (0–0.0166)0.0116 (0.000491–0.129)0.000242
    BAER (class MDR)0 (0–0.00932)0.0111 (0.000280–0.123)0.000211
    CPXA (class MDR)0 (0–0.00772)0.00856 (0–0.0814)0.0000465
    CPXAR (class MDR)0 (0–0.0178)0.0265 (0.000554–0.231)0.000110
    CRP (class MDR)0.000726 (0–0.0105)0.0236 (0.00144–0.132)0.0000417
    EMRB (class MDR)0 (0–0.0124)0.0158 (0.000659–0.131)0.000110
    EMRD (class MDR)0 (0–0.00411)0.00416 (0–0.0436)0.000276
    EMRK (class MDR)0 (0–0.00802)0.00534 (0–0.107)0.000170
    EMRR (class MDR)0 (0–0.0129)0.00909 (0.00114–0.104)0.000242
    EVGA (class MDR)0 (0–0.0101)0.00597 (0–0.113)0.000182
    FOLP (class sulfonamides)0.000517 (0–0.00800)0.0273 (0–0.149)0.000265
    GYRA (class fluoroquinolones)0.000342 (0–0.00969)0.0256 (0.000463–0.110)0.000164
    GYRB (class fluoroquinolones)0.000230 (0–0.0145)0.0225 (0.00132–0.144)0.0000602
    HNS (class MDR)0.000179 (0–0.00849)0.0152 (0.00147–0.0966)0.0000100
    MARR (class MDR)0 (0–0.00611)0.00428 (0–0.0902)0.000215
    MDTB (class MDR)0 (0–0.0120)0.0142 (0.000601–0.109)0.000248
    OMPF (class MDR)0.000356 (0–0.00686)0.0163 (0.000493–0.0930)0.0000320
    PARC (class fluoroquinolones)0.000544 (0–0.0134)0.0197 (0–0.132)0.000226
    PARE (class aminocoumarins)0.000275 (0–0.00603)0.0228 (0–0.0708)0.000101
    RPOB (class rifampin)0.00241 (0–0.0114)0.0920 (0.00233–0.134)0.0000150
    TUFAB (class elfamycin)0.00325 (0–0.0181)0.0870 (0.00977–0.230)0.00000582
    ERMX (class MLS)0.366 (0.220–2.72)0.0109 (0–0.0450)0.00000279
  • a P value for significant difference at the class level was 0.00278, at the mechanism level was 0.00104, and at the group level was 0.000281.