TABLE 1 

Selected baseline characteristics, outcomes, and unadjusted analysis versus recurrent CDI (968 index episodes; 110 recurrences)a

Variablen (%) or
mean ± SD
OR (95% CI)P
Age (yrs)57.1 (±18)1 (0.99–1.01)0.538
Female gender526 (54.3)1.41 (0.94–2.13)0.096
White race790 (81.6)0.66 (0.4–1.07)0.094
Charlson-Deyo score, unweighted1.8 (±1.7)1.08 (0.97–1.21)0.181
Prior CDI128 (13.2)0.78 (0.42–1.47)0.448
HA-CDI702 (72.5)0.52 (0.35–0.79)0.002
Concurrent antibiotic use645 (66.6)1.25 (0.81–1.93)0.313
Prior fluoroquinolone use310 (32)1.09 (0.71–1.65)0.700
PPI use660 (68.2)1.28 (0.82–1.99)0.278
Fever206 (21.3)0.91 (0.56–1.47)0.687
Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)99.1 (±19.4)1 (0.99–1.01)0.692
Mechanical ventilation172 (17.8)0.59 (0.32–1.08)0.086
Serum sodium (mmol/liter)137 (±4.3)0.97 (0.92–1.01)0.133
Serum creatinine (mg/dl)1.6 (±1.8)0.998 (0.9–1.11)0.969
Serum albumin (g/dl)3.2 (±0.6)1.01 (0.73–1.39)0.959
Total serum bilirubin (mg/dl)1.5 (±3.6)1.05 (1–1.1)0.034
Serum WBC >15,000 cells/mm3286 (29.6)0.997 (0.98–1.01)0.729
Serum hemoglobin (g/dl)9.5 (±2)0.985 (0.89–1.09)0.763
Serum platelets (1,000 cells/mm3)256 (±190)1 (0.999–1)0.776
Ribotype (reference level: other ribotypes)
    Ribotype 014-020147 (15.1)0.82 (0.43–1.57)0.542
    Ribotype 027133 (13.7)2.34 (1.41–3.88)0.001
    Ribotype 053-16361 (6.3)0.82 (0.32–2.13)0.684
    Ribotype 078-12626 (2.6)1.67 (0.56–5.02)0.362
    Other ribotypes560 (57.9)NANA
Inability to cultivate C. difficile41 (4.2)1.65 (0.66–3.6)0.244
Detectable stool toxin(s) A/B by EIA354 (36.6)1.87 (1.25–2.79)0.002
CT34 (±4)0.94 (0.87–1.01)0.099
Abnormal abdominal imaging247 (25.5)0.84 (0.53–1.35)0.476
Severe CDI324 (33.4)1.2 (0.79–1.81)0.393
Complicated CDI322 (33.2)0.9 (0.6–1.34)0.604
30-day ICU admission120 (12.4)1.34 (0.77–2.34)0.303
30-day mortality79 (8.2)NANA
  • a Comorbidities with nonsignificant P values not shown in this table: immunosuppression, AIDS, lymphoma, solid-organ tumor, metastatic cancer, obesity, liver disease, peptic ulcer disease, hypertension, prior myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, peripheral vascular disease, prior stroke, dementia, chronic pulmonary disease, rheumatologic disorder, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and depression. CDI, Clostridium difficile infection; CI, confidence interval; CT, PCR cycle threshold; EIA, enzyme immunoassay; HA, hospital associated; ICU, intensive care unit; NA, not applicable; OR, odds ratio; PPI, proton pump inhibitor; WBC, white blood cell count.