TABLE 1

Relative abundances of the most abundant taxonomic groups (at the family level) in infants, by birth mode and study group

Postnatal
day
Organism% mean relative abundance (SD) in study groupa
CS-CONDV-CONCS-EVC001-fedDV-EVC001-fed
6 Bifidobacteriaceae 0.09 (0.05)28.99 (31.92)19 (36.37)17.11 (25.05)
6 Bacteroidaceae 4.88 (14.63)15.87 (21.19)0 (0)16.25 (20.94)
6 Enterobacteriaceae 9.45 (14.96)24.01 (23.07)13.18 (28.17)30 (29.1)
6 Clostridiaceae 1.3 (2.7)2.87 (9.27)4.4 (8.94)4.13 (14.55)
6 Enterococcaceae 19.96 (20.84)2.78 (8.59)21.45 (29.35)3.94 (6.6)
6 Lactobacillaceae 0.03 (0.07)0.06 (0.17)1.51 (4.48)0.06 (0.22)
6 Staphylococcaceae 9.23 (10.54)6.22 (7.28)5.91 (8.39)5.03 (5.9)
6 Streptococcaceae 26.44 (23.3)8.35 (13.9)15.58 (27.82)10.29 (14.54)
6 Veillonellaceae 9.12 (13.01)1.33 (2.85)0.33 (0.78)0.7 (1.76)
6Other bacteria19.52 (18.49)b9.51 (11.71)18.64 (22.13)12.48 (16.42)
10 Bifidobacteriaceae 6.91 (18.61)36.88 (30.73)79.62 (30.3)84.95 (9.49)
10 Bacteroidaceae 4.02 (12.03)8.21 (9.89)0.01 (0.01)0.14 (0.48)
10 Enterobacteriaceae 30.94 (22.23)16.19 (20.69)3.96 (6.45)2.15 (3.4)
10 Clostridiaceae 13.31 (17)3.8 (8.49)0.13 (0.27)0 (0.01)
10 Enterococcaceae 6.61 (9.78)0.56 (1.8)4.09 (11.1)0.01 (0.02)
10 Lactobacillaceae 0.06 (0.17)1.62 (6.26)0.03 (0.08)0.03 (0.11)
10 Staphylococcaceae 12.08 (6.21)8.87 (9.41)3.84 (4.31)6.24 (4.91)
10 Streptococcaceae 11.43 (17.4)7.87 (11.93)7.12 (13.77)4.89 (3.3)
10 Veillonellaceae 6.26 (11.69)3.32 (10.52)0.6 (1.18)0.48 (1.62)
10Other bacteria8.37 (10.37)12.68 (22.96)0.62 (0.49)1.09 (1.78)
14 Bifidobacteriaceae 12.24 (24.12)36.46 (33.27)78.56 (31.59)86.37 (8.36)
14 Bacteroidaceae 7.22 (15.21)6.65 (9.38)0.01 (0.01)1.08 (3.08)
14 Enterobacteriaceae 33.33 (26.42)21.1 (22.6)5.78 (14.54)1.51 (2.66)
14 Clostridiaceae 8.77 (11.29)8.03 (11.88)0.12 (0.22)0 (0.01)
14 Enterococcaceae 1.38 (1.54)0.43 (1.02)6.08 (16.55)0.02 (0.04)
14 Lactobacillaceae 4.14 (11.72)1.43 (5.78)0.02 (0.07)0.01 (0.02)
14 Staphylococcaceae 14.1 (12.08)9.82 (9.72)4.99 (3.63)5.86 (4.34)
14 Streptococcaceae 7.58 (9.58)7.18 (12.29)2.62 (2)3.55 (2.57)
14 Veillonellaceae 3.28 (6.64)1.28 (2.36)1.2 (3.05)0.87 (2.68)
14Other bacteria7.96 (16.71)7.61 (12.65)0.63 (0.65)0.73 (0.91)
21 Bifidobacteriaceae 17.4 (24.6)38.74 (35.47)89.86 (5.12)86.16 (14.71)
21 Bacteroidaceae 6.91 (13.49)10.44 (14.59)0.01 (0.01)2.2 (6.41)
21 Enterobacteriaceae 31.02 (22.31)21.32 (22.13)0.91 (1.14)0.98 (1.47)
21 Clostridiaceae 14.4 (18.50)8.87 (12.21)0.11 (0.27)0 (0.01)
21 Enterococcaceae 1.22 (1.04)0.38 (1.01)1.98 (3.44)0.05 (0.11)
21 Lactobacillaceae 0.38 (0.89)0.65 (2.59)0.02 (0.05)0.08 (0.26)
21 Staphylococcaceae 5.91 (5.24)3.51 (4.03)2.85 (3.34)1.83 (2.98)
21 Streptococcaceae 6.34 (11.92)5.42 (6.53)3.2 (2.63)4.66 (6.2)
21 Veillonellaceae 1.22 (2.24)1.14 (1.75)0.42 (0.91)0.9 (2.79)
21Other bacteria15.19 (21.57)9.53 (12.20)0.64 (0.54)3.13 (9.81)
25 Bifidobacteriaceae 21.09 (28.05)39.26 (36.05)83.05 (26.31)88.17 (10.97)
25 Bacteroidaceae 7.16 (14.12)10.77 (14.55)0 (0.01)1.26 (2.51)
25 Enterobacteriaceae 23.34 (23.4)20.79 (22.34)3.97 (8.02)2.72 (3.95)
25 Clostridiaceae 23.43 (28.53)9.16 (13.9)0.27 (0.68)0 (0)
25 Enterococcaceae 0.89 (0.96)0.33 (1.08)4.67 (11.96)0.17 (0.43)
25 Lactobacillaceae 1.31 (3.31)0.42 (1.29)0.02 (0.04)0.25 (0.83)
25 Staphylococcaceae 4.67 (4.6)2.38 (2.88)1.64 (1.91)1.02 (1.33)
25 Streptococcaceae 3.81 (2.68)6.8 (11.54)3.29 (3.22)3.16 (3.78)
25 Veillonellaceae 1.15 (1.96)1 (2.03)1.88 (2.92)1.08 (2.83)
25Other bacteria13.14 (18.78)9.08 (9.51)1.20 (1.76)2.16 (5.76)
29 Bifidobacteriaceae 29.25 (33.47)42.62 (38.43)77.97 (29.18)85.01 (13.16)
29 Bacteroidaceae 6.3 (12.11)9.35 (13.26)0.01 (0.01)3.09 (6.35)
29 Enterobacteriaceae 15.9 (16.53)21.28 (22.02)4.84 (9.77)2.39 (3.7)
29 Clostridiaceae 17.25 (22.33)8.66 (13.13)0.67 (1)0.04 (0.16)
29 Enterococcaceae 0.67 (0.89)0.3 (0.61)5.97 (14.05)0.3 (0.54)
29 Lactobacillaceae 0.96 (1.83)0.58 (1.55)0.4 (1.09)1 (3.22)
29 Staphylococcaceae 5.15 (5.89)1.48 (1.95)0.94 (1.27)0.45 (0.63)
29 Streptococcaceae 5.85 (6.67)5.16 (11.69)2.8 (3.27)3.19 (3.5)
29 Veillonellaceae 1.77 (4.13)0.95 (2.08)3.25 (4.27)1.53 (3.27)
29Other bacteria16.90 (23.17)9.60 (10.42)3.16 (3.09)2.98 (5.12)
32 Bifidobacteriaceae 24.8 (32.37)40.27 (34.56)83.3 (15.6)88.15 (10.08)
32 Bacteroidaceae 3.97 (11.21)11.95 (14.9)0 (0.01)0.88 (1.99)
32 Enterobacteriaceae 24.63 (22.24)19.99 (24.09)2.26 (3.25)2.88 (4.27)
32 Clostridiaceae 12.54 (16.95)8.9 (15.47)0.33 (0.71)0.01 (0.03)
32 Enterococcaceae 0.51 (0.41)0.21 (0.39)3.47 (6.84)0.69 (2.22)
32 Lactobacillaceae 2.76 (5.77)0.41 (0.97)0.98 (2.76)1.34 (3.42)
32 Staphylococcaceae 3.55 (2.73)1.52 (3)0.56 (0.84)0.42 (0.48)
32 Streptococcaceae 4.82 (1.38)5.18 (8.22)3.98 (4.55)3.49 (3.98)
32 Veillonellaceae 1.05 (1.05)1.31 (2.61)2.99 (4.22)0.77 (2.26)
32Other bacteria21.38 (26.33)10.26 (10.56)2.11 (2.26)1.36 (1.82)
40 Bifidobacteriaceae 38.27 (38.61)43.98 (37.26)87.45 (6.55)87.6 (11.63)
40 Bacteroidaceae 3.4 (9.9)11.39 (14.32)0.01 (0.01)2.24 (4.7)
40 Enterobacteriaceae 22.2 (18.23)18.96 (21.98)2.33 (2)3.44 (7.44)
40 Clostridiaceae 10.66 (20.36)6.91 (11.35)0.23 (0.49)0.03 (0.1)
40 Enterococcaceae 0.34 (0.37)0.65 (2.65)2.16 (1.93)0.34 (0.85)
40 Lactobacillaceae 1.66 (2.85)0.83 (1.86)0.49 (0.81)0.27 (0.62)
40 Staphylococcaceae 2.65 (2.36)0.65 (0.93)0.29 (0.46)0.41 (0.6)
40 Streptococcaceae 6.57 (11.72)3.19 (4.11)1.38 (1.87)3.39 (2.94)
40 Veillonellaceae 3.63 (8.53)1.49 (2.69)1.07 (1.74)0.69 (2.45)
40Other bacteria10.64 (17.05)11.96 (15.59)4.60 (4.85)1.58 (2.14)
50 Bifidobacteriaceae 26.31 (33.96)42.09 (33.34)83.35 (9.02)88.94 (9.54)
50 Bacteroidaceae 5.23 (9.84)15.11 (15.56)0.01 (0.01)3.48 (6.89)
50 Enterobacteriaceae 25.8 (15.89)19.56 (19.87)2.58 (2.37)2.03 (2.28)
50 Clostridiaceae 19.27 (21.38)3.53 (7.54)0.47 (0.72)0.03 (0.08)
50 Enterococcaceae 0.42 (0.44)0.77 (2.35)2.35 (2.52)0.35 (0.88)
50 Lactobacillaceae 1.55 (3.09)1.36 (3.66)0.69 (1.16)0.56 (1.36)
50 Staphylococcaceae 1.7 (1.64)0.46 (0.82)0.26 (0.41)0.29 (0.51)
50 Streptococcaceae 3.85 (3.32)2.54 (3.24)2.01 (2.3)2.01 (1.93)
50 Veillonellaceae 1.99 (2.44)1.11 (1.77)2.93 (4.25)0.75 (2.21)
50Other bacteria13.86 (16.35)13.46 (18.09)5.38 (4.24)1.56 (1.56)
60 Bifidobacteriaceae 29.37 (28.77)36.57 (32.48)78.99 (15.51)85.56 (11.88)
60 Bacteroidaceae 9.48 (18.79)13.09 (15.75)0 (0)3.56 (6.42)
60 Enterobacteriaceae 19.37 (8.46)14.69 (13.03)3.48 (2.97)3.53 (5.47)
60 Clostridiaceae 9.86 (10.92)8.47 (15.12)0.69 (1.01)0.03 (0.07)
60 Enterococcaceae 1.1 (1.52)0.19 (0.45)3.27 (3.34)0.4 (0.79)
60 Lactobacillaceae 2.1 (3.3)0.91 (2.14)0.53 (0.96)0.33 (0.69)
60 Staphylococcaceae 1.32 (2.12)0.56 (0.86)0.34 (0.5)0.36 (0.81)
60 Streptococcaceae 5.36 (7.82)4.39 (5.83)1.43 (1.21)2.77 (3.27)
60 Veillonellaceae 2.21 (3.08)5.22 (7.86)3.97 (5.41)0.3 (0.5)
60Other bacteria19.81 (23.49)15.88 (15.18)7.31 (7.91)3.16 (4.94)
  • a Group abbreviations indicate the route of delivery (CS or DV) and the treatment group. CON, control.

  • b Values for the “Other bacteria” rows represent all other, less abundant, bacterial families.