TABLE 1

Relative abundances of the most abundant taxonomic groups (at the family level) in infants, by birth mode and study group

Postnatal
day
Organism% mean relative abundance (SD) in study groupa
CS-CONDV-CONCS-EVC001-fedDV-EVC001-fed
6Bifidobacteriaceae0.09 (0.05)28.99 (31.92)19 (36.37)17.11 (25.05)
6Bacteroidaceae4.88 (14.63)15.87 (21.19)0 (0)16.25 (20.94)
6Enterobacteriaceae9.45 (14.96)24.01 (23.07)13.18 (28.17)30 (29.1)
6Clostridiaceae1.3 (2.7)2.87 (9.27)4.4 (8.94)4.13 (14.55)
6Enterococcaceae19.96 (20.84)2.78 (8.59)21.45 (29.35)3.94 (6.6)
6Lactobacillaceae0.03 (0.07)0.06 (0.17)1.51 (4.48)0.06 (0.22)
6Staphylococcaceae9.23 (10.54)6.22 (7.28)5.91 (8.39)5.03 (5.9)
6Streptococcaceae26.44 (23.3)8.35 (13.9)15.58 (27.82)10.29 (14.54)
6Veillonellaceae9.12 (13.01)1.33 (2.85)0.33 (0.78)0.7 (1.76)
6Other bacteria19.52 (18.49)b9.51 (11.71)18.64 (22.13)12.48 (16.42)
10Bifidobacteriaceae6.91 (18.61)36.88 (30.73)79.62 (30.3)84.95 (9.49)
10Bacteroidaceae4.02 (12.03)8.21 (9.89)0.01 (0.01)0.14 (0.48)
10Enterobacteriaceae30.94 (22.23)16.19 (20.69)3.96 (6.45)2.15 (3.4)
10Clostridiaceae13.31 (17)3.8 (8.49)0.13 (0.27)0 (0.01)
10Enterococcaceae6.61 (9.78)0.56 (1.8)4.09 (11.1)0.01 (0.02)
10Lactobacillaceae0.06 (0.17)1.62 (6.26)0.03 (0.08)0.03 (0.11)
10Staphylococcaceae12.08 (6.21)8.87 (9.41)3.84 (4.31)6.24 (4.91)
10Streptococcaceae11.43 (17.4)7.87 (11.93)7.12 (13.77)4.89 (3.3)
10Veillonellaceae6.26 (11.69)3.32 (10.52)0.6 (1.18)0.48 (1.62)
10Other bacteria8.37 (10.37)12.68 (22.96)0.62 (0.49)1.09 (1.78)
14Bifidobacteriaceae12.24 (24.12)36.46 (33.27)78.56 (31.59)86.37 (8.36)
14Bacteroidaceae7.22 (15.21)6.65 (9.38)0.01 (0.01)1.08 (3.08)
14Enterobacteriaceae33.33 (26.42)21.1 (22.6)5.78 (14.54)1.51 (2.66)
14Clostridiaceae8.77 (11.29)8.03 (11.88)0.12 (0.22)0 (0.01)
14Enterococcaceae1.38 (1.54)0.43 (1.02)6.08 (16.55)0.02 (0.04)
14Lactobacillaceae4.14 (11.72)1.43 (5.78)0.02 (0.07)0.01 (0.02)
14Staphylococcaceae14.1 (12.08)9.82 (9.72)4.99 (3.63)5.86 (4.34)
14Streptococcaceae7.58 (9.58)7.18 (12.29)2.62 (2)3.55 (2.57)
14Veillonellaceae3.28 (6.64)1.28 (2.36)1.2 (3.05)0.87 (2.68)
14Other bacteria7.96 (16.71)7.61 (12.65)0.63 (0.65)0.73 (0.91)
21Bifidobacteriaceae17.4 (24.6)38.74 (35.47)89.86 (5.12)86.16 (14.71)
21Bacteroidaceae6.91 (13.49)10.44 (14.59)0.01 (0.01)2.2 (6.41)
21Enterobacteriaceae31.02 (22.31)21.32 (22.13)0.91 (1.14)0.98 (1.47)
21Clostridiaceae14.4 (18.50)8.87 (12.21)0.11 (0.27)0 (0.01)
21Enterococcaceae1.22 (1.04)0.38 (1.01)1.98 (3.44)0.05 (0.11)
21Lactobacillaceae0.38 (0.89)0.65 (2.59)0.02 (0.05)0.08 (0.26)
21Staphylococcaceae5.91 (5.24)3.51 (4.03)2.85 (3.34)1.83 (2.98)
21Streptococcaceae6.34 (11.92)5.42 (6.53)3.2 (2.63)4.66 (6.2)
21Veillonellaceae1.22 (2.24)1.14 (1.75)0.42 (0.91)0.9 (2.79)
21Other bacteria15.19 (21.57)9.53 (12.20)0.64 (0.54)3.13 (9.81)
25Bifidobacteriaceae21.09 (28.05)39.26 (36.05)83.05 (26.31)88.17 (10.97)
25Bacteroidaceae7.16 (14.12)10.77 (14.55)0 (0.01)1.26 (2.51)
25Enterobacteriaceae23.34 (23.4)20.79 (22.34)3.97 (8.02)2.72 (3.95)
25Clostridiaceae23.43 (28.53)9.16 (13.9)0.27 (0.68)0 (0)
25Enterococcaceae0.89 (0.96)0.33 (1.08)4.67 (11.96)0.17 (0.43)
25Lactobacillaceae1.31 (3.31)0.42 (1.29)0.02 (0.04)0.25 (0.83)
25Staphylococcaceae4.67 (4.6)2.38 (2.88)1.64 (1.91)1.02 (1.33)
25Streptococcaceae3.81 (2.68)6.8 (11.54)3.29 (3.22)3.16 (3.78)
25Veillonellaceae1.15 (1.96)1 (2.03)1.88 (2.92)1.08 (2.83)
25Other bacteria13.14 (18.78)9.08 (9.51)1.20 (1.76)2.16 (5.76)
29Bifidobacteriaceae29.25 (33.47)42.62 (38.43)77.97 (29.18)85.01 (13.16)
29Bacteroidaceae6.3 (12.11)9.35 (13.26)0.01 (0.01)3.09 (6.35)
29Enterobacteriaceae15.9 (16.53)21.28 (22.02)4.84 (9.77)2.39 (3.7)
29Clostridiaceae17.25 (22.33)8.66 (13.13)0.67 (1)0.04 (0.16)
29Enterococcaceae0.67 (0.89)0.3 (0.61)5.97 (14.05)0.3 (0.54)
29Lactobacillaceae0.96 (1.83)0.58 (1.55)0.4 (1.09)1 (3.22)
29Staphylococcaceae5.15 (5.89)1.48 (1.95)0.94 (1.27)0.45 (0.63)
29Streptococcaceae5.85 (6.67)5.16 (11.69)2.8 (3.27)3.19 (3.5)
29Veillonellaceae1.77 (4.13)0.95 (2.08)3.25 (4.27)1.53 (3.27)
29Other bacteria16.90 (23.17)9.60 (10.42)3.16 (3.09)2.98 (5.12)
32Bifidobacteriaceae24.8 (32.37)40.27 (34.56)83.3 (15.6)88.15 (10.08)
32Bacteroidaceae3.97 (11.21)11.95 (14.9)0 (0.01)0.88 (1.99)
32Enterobacteriaceae24.63 (22.24)19.99 (24.09)2.26 (3.25)2.88 (4.27)
32Clostridiaceae12.54 (16.95)8.9 (15.47)0.33 (0.71)0.01 (0.03)
32Enterococcaceae0.51 (0.41)0.21 (0.39)3.47 (6.84)0.69 (2.22)
32Lactobacillaceae2.76 (5.77)0.41 (0.97)0.98 (2.76)1.34 (3.42)
32Staphylococcaceae3.55 (2.73)1.52 (3)0.56 (0.84)0.42 (0.48)
32Streptococcaceae4.82 (1.38)5.18 (8.22)3.98 (4.55)3.49 (3.98)
32Veillonellaceae1.05 (1.05)1.31 (2.61)2.99 (4.22)0.77 (2.26)
32Other bacteria21.38 (26.33)10.26 (10.56)2.11 (2.26)1.36 (1.82)
40Bifidobacteriaceae38.27 (38.61)43.98 (37.26)87.45 (6.55)87.6 (11.63)
40Bacteroidaceae3.4 (9.9)11.39 (14.32)0.01 (0.01)2.24 (4.7)
40Enterobacteriaceae22.2 (18.23)18.96 (21.98)2.33 (2)3.44 (7.44)
40Clostridiaceae10.66 (20.36)6.91 (11.35)0.23 (0.49)0.03 (0.1)
40Enterococcaceae0.34 (0.37)0.65 (2.65)2.16 (1.93)0.34 (0.85)
40Lactobacillaceae1.66 (2.85)0.83 (1.86)0.49 (0.81)0.27 (0.62)
40Staphylococcaceae2.65 (2.36)0.65 (0.93)0.29 (0.46)0.41 (0.6)
40Streptococcaceae6.57 (11.72)3.19 (4.11)1.38 (1.87)3.39 (2.94)
40Veillonellaceae3.63 (8.53)1.49 (2.69)1.07 (1.74)0.69 (2.45)
40Other bacteria10.64 (17.05)11.96 (15.59)4.60 (4.85)1.58 (2.14)
50Bifidobacteriaceae26.31 (33.96)42.09 (33.34)83.35 (9.02)88.94 (9.54)
50Bacteroidaceae5.23 (9.84)15.11 (15.56)0.01 (0.01)3.48 (6.89)
50Enterobacteriaceae25.8 (15.89)19.56 (19.87)2.58 (2.37)2.03 (2.28)
50Clostridiaceae19.27 (21.38)3.53 (7.54)0.47 (0.72)0.03 (0.08)
50Enterococcaceae0.42 (0.44)0.77 (2.35)2.35 (2.52)0.35 (0.88)
50Lactobacillaceae1.55 (3.09)1.36 (3.66)0.69 (1.16)0.56 (1.36)
50Staphylococcaceae1.7 (1.64)0.46 (0.82)0.26 (0.41)0.29 (0.51)
50Streptococcaceae3.85 (3.32)2.54 (3.24)2.01 (2.3)2.01 (1.93)
50Veillonellaceae1.99 (2.44)1.11 (1.77)2.93 (4.25)0.75 (2.21)
50Other bacteria13.86 (16.35)13.46 (18.09)5.38 (4.24)1.56 (1.56)
60Bifidobacteriaceae29.37 (28.77)36.57 (32.48)78.99 (15.51)85.56 (11.88)
60Bacteroidaceae9.48 (18.79)13.09 (15.75)0 (0)3.56 (6.42)
60Enterobacteriaceae19.37 (8.46)14.69 (13.03)3.48 (2.97)3.53 (5.47)
60Clostridiaceae9.86 (10.92)8.47 (15.12)0.69 (1.01)0.03 (0.07)
60Enterococcaceae1.1 (1.52)0.19 (0.45)3.27 (3.34)0.4 (0.79)
60Lactobacillaceae2.1 (3.3)0.91 (2.14)0.53 (0.96)0.33 (0.69)
60Staphylococcaceae1.32 (2.12)0.56 (0.86)0.34 (0.5)0.36 (0.81)
60Streptococcaceae5.36 (7.82)4.39 (5.83)1.43 (1.21)2.77 (3.27)
60Veillonellaceae2.21 (3.08)5.22 (7.86)3.97 (5.41)0.3 (0.5)
60Other bacteria19.81 (23.49)15.88 (15.18)7.31 (7.91)3.16 (4.94)
  • a Group abbreviations indicate the route of delivery (CS or DV) and the treatment group. CON, control.

  • b Values for the “Other bacteria” rows represent all other, less abundant, bacterial families.