TABLE 1

Characteristics of pathogenic Cryptococcus speciesa

CharacteristicC. neoformansC. deneoformansC. gattiiC. bacillisporusC. deuterogattiiC. tetragattiiC. decagattii
GenotypeAFLP1/VNI, AFLP1A/VNB/VNII, and AFLP1B/VNIIAFLP2/VNIVAFLP4/VGIAFLP5/VGIIIAFLP6/VGIIAFLP7/VGIVAFLP10
Geographical distributionbWorldwide (↑AFR)Global (↑EUR)Worldwide (↑ Asia, AUS, EUR)Global (↑ California)Worldwide (↑ AUS, NAM, SAM)Sub-Saharan Africa and IndiaLatin America
Ecological preferenceBird droppings, soil, trees (1, 51–55)Bird droppings, soil, trees (1, 51–55)Trees (1)TreesTrees??
Colonization↑ in Arabidopsis thaliana compared to C. deneoformans (54)↓ in Arabidopsis thaliana compared to C. neoformans (54)NDNDNDNDND
Animal infection↑ Birds?↑ MammalsMammals↑ Mammals??
Susceptibility to antifungal drugsc↑ GM MICs for AMB than C. deneoformans and interspecies hybrids (19, 48); ↑ GM MICs for 5FC compared to C. tetragattii (152)↑ GM MICs for 5FC than C. neoformans and interspecies hybrids (48)↑ GM MICs for FLZ, ITZ, and VCZ than C. neoformans (49)No specific determinants↑ GM MICs for 5FC, FLZ, VCZ, ITZ, PSZ, and ISA than C. gattii (44–46)↓ GM MICs for 5FC compared to C. neoformans (152)?
Clinical/host immune statusMainly immunocompromised (↑HIV), but subgenotype VNIγ from immunocompetent subjects (84). ↑ meningitisImmunocompromised and immunocompetent, ↑ cutaneous and elderly (153)↑ Apparently healthy subjects, ↑ cryptococcoma↑ HIV-positive subjects↑ Apparently healthy subjects, ↑ pulmonary infections↑ HIV-positive subjectsHIV-positive subjects
Capsule properties↓ compared to C. gattiisensu lato (154)ND↑ compared to C. neoformans (154); ↑ compared to C. bacillisporus, C. deuterogattii, and C. tetragattii (50)↑ compared to C. neoformans and C. deuterogattii (154)↑ compared to C. neoformans (154); ↓ compared to C. bacillisporus, C. gattii, and C. tetragattii (48)↑ compared to C. neoformans (154)ND
Cell volumeNDND↓ compared to C. bacillisporus, C. deuterogattii, and C. tetragattii; absence of giant cells (50)ND↑ compared to C. bacillisporus, C. gattii, and C. tetragattii;i ↑ giant cells (50)↑ Giant cells (50)ND
Thermotolerance↑ Growth rate at 37°C (154)↓ Growth rate at 37°C (154)↓ Growth rate at 37°C (154); intermediate compared to C. bacillisporus, C. deuterogattii, and C. tetragattii (50)↓ Growth rate at 37°C (154); ↓ compared to C. gattii, C. deuterogattii, and C. tetragattii (50)↓ Growth rate at 37°C compared to C. neoformans (154); ↑ compared to C. gattii, C. bacillisporus, and C. tetragattii (50)↓ compared to C. gattii, C. bacillisporus, and C. deuterogattii (50)ND
Melanin↑ compared to C. gattiisensu lato (154)ND↓ compared to C. neoformans (154)↓ compared to C. neoformans (154)↓ compared to C. neoformans (154)↓ compared to C. neoformans (154)ND
Virulence in Drosophila melanogaster modelNDND↓ compared to C. bacillisporus (154)↑ compared to C. gattii, C. deuterogattii, and C. tetragattii (154)↓ compared to C. bacillisporus (154)↓ compared to C. bacillisporus (154)ND
RNAi pathwaydPresent (65)Present (65)Present (65)Present (65)Lost (65)Present (65)ND
Mycophenolic acidSensitive (66)Sensitive (66)Sensitive (66)Sensitive (66)Sensitive (66)Not sensitive (66)ND
Growth on the following medium:
    CGBYellowishYellowishBlueBlueBlueBlueBlue
    CDBTPale colonies with no apparent color effect on the medium (155)Colonies bright red, medium bright orange (155)NDNDNDNDND
  • a Overview of characteristics of the pathogenic Cryptococcus species, using data from Hagen et al. (1) and updated where indicated with reference numbers. See reference 1, including its supplemental data, for more-detailed phenotypic information. A question mark indicates that the specific item is unknown. ↑, higher or increase in; ↓, lower or decrease in; ND, not determined.

  • b Abbreviations: AFR, Africa; EUR, Europe; AUS, Australia: NAM, North America; SAM, South America.

  • c Abbreviations: GM, geometric mean; AMB, amphotericin B; 5FC, 5-fluorocytosine; FLZ, fluoconazole; ISA, isavuconazole; ITZ, itraconazole; PSZ, posaconazole; VCZ, voriconazole.

  • d RNAi, RNA interference.