TABLE 2 

Pathogenic potential calculations for several microbes in micea

Microbe or conditionMortalityInoculumPPReference
Theoretical maximum1.01.0 × 1001.0 × 101This work
Francisella tularensis0.52.0 × 1001.6 × 10013
Bacillus anthracis0.52.6 × 1001.2 × 10014
Brucella suis0.53.8 × 1008.3 × 10−115
Toxoplasma gondii0.51.5 × 1012.1 × 10−116
Coccidioides immitis0.51.7 × 1011.9 × 10−117
Klebsiella pneumoniae0.51.9 × 1011.7 × 10−118
Streptococcus pneumoniae0.53.0 × 1011.1 × 10−119
Yersinia pestis0.53.7 × 1018.5 × 10−220
Cryptococcus neoformans0.55.1 × 1016.2 × 10−221
Vibrio vulnificus0.57.5 × 1014.2 × 10−222
Herpes simplex virus0.52.2 × 1021.4 × 10−223
Escherichia coli0.51.0 × 1033.2 × 10−324
Candida albicans0.56.6 × 1034.8 × 10−425
Murine cytomegalovirus0.55.0 × 1046.3 × 10−523
Aspergillus fumigatus0.256.0 × 1043.0 × 10−526
Group B streptococcus0.56.3 × 1045.0 × 10−527
Murine adenovirus0.51.0 × 1053.2 × 10−528
Listeria monocytogenes0.52.4 × 1051.3 × 10−529
Nocardia asteroides0.58.5 × 1053.7 × 10−630
Shigella sonnei0.51.6 × 1062.0 × 10−631
Naegleria fowleri0.755.0 × 1061.1 × 10−632
Bacillus cereus0.51.0 × 1073.2 × 10−714
Staphylococcus saprophyticus0.52.7 × 1071.2 × 10−733
Bacillus thuringiensis0.51.1 × 1072.9 × 10−714
Pseudomonas aeruginosa0.55.0 × 1076.3 × 10−834
Legionella pneumophila0.56.7 × 1074.7 × 10−835
Staphylococcus epidermidis0.56.0 × 1075.3 × 10−833
Staphylococcus aureus0.51.0 × 1083.2 × 10−836
Haemophilus influenzae type B +0.52.0 × 1081.6 × 10−837
    mucinb0.53.4 × 1049.3 × 10−537
Enterococcus faecalis0.52.6 × 1081.2 × 10−838
  • a The PP calculation used literature information on the mortality of mice infected with these microbes. For the calculation, Fs was assumed to 1.0 in all instances, which means that the PP reduces to the inverse of the inoculum modified by the mortality parameter. In those studies where there were multiple microbial strains and different mouse strains, the values used are those that had the largest effects. The PP calculations in this table are for illustrative purposes only, and the reader is cautioned that the studies listed above used different mouse strains and infection routes. Hence, comparisons among the listed microbes should be done cautiously, and the major goal of this listing is to show that these lie on a continuum with regard to their pathogenicity for mice.

  • b Mixing the inoculum with mucin reduces the dose needed to cause mortality as the mucin presumably interferes with host defense mechanisms.