TABLE 1 

Gene sets that are differentially expressed in zebrafish embryos because of systemic infection with ExPEC are functionally similar to many of those that are changed in human patients with sepsis

Functional categoryGene productsaLinks to human sepsisb
Signal transduction55–58, 101
    Pattern recognition
receptors
TLR5, MARCO scavenger receptor,
MyD88, IRAK4, IRF7, TRAF1/2b/3
    NF-κBRel, NF-κB2, NF-κBIa (IκBα), Bcl3,
TRAF1/2b, RIPK2
    MAP kinaseFos, Jun, ATF-3, MEKK5, TRAF1/2b,
GADD45A/B
    Jak-STATJak1, STAT4, STAT1b, STAT3, IRF9
Proinflammatory
mediators
TNF-α/β, TNF receptors (TNFRSF1a and
TNFRSF9a), IL-1β, IL-12, IL-17, IL-8
49, 55, 56, 58
Anti-inflammatory
factors
SOCS1/3, IL-10, galectin-1, IRAK3
(IRAK-M)
55–58, 101, 102
Acute-phase proteinsSAA1, HAMP1, haptoglobin, hemopexin49, 56, 57, 66, 68, 101, 103
Coagulation and
complement
Coagulation factor IIIb, fibrinogen,
complement factor B, clusterin,
complement components C3b, C3c, C4-2, C6, C7-1
56, 57, 101
Protease activitiesMMP9/13/30, proteasome subunits,
cathepsin C/H, carboxypeptidase A4,
ADAM8a, SERPINB1/5
56, 57, 67
ROSc generation and
management
Neutrophil cytosolic factor 1 (p47-PHOX),
cytochrome b-245 (p22-PHOX),
glutathione peroxidase 1b, thioredoxin,
UCP2, GADD45A/B, metallothionein 2,
solute carrier family 30/39
50, 55, 56, 58, 104
ApoptosisCaspase 8, Fas, MEKK5 (ASK-1), CFLAR,
TRAF1/2b, galectin-1, RIPK2
56, 55, 57, 58
Arachidonic acid
metabolism
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 1
(COX-1), prostaglandin-endoperoxide
synthase 2a/b (COX-2), glutathione
peroxidase 1b, epoxide hydrolase 2,
cytochrome p450s, cholesterol
25-hydroxylase
56, 105, 106
  • a Transcript levels for the gene products indicated are significantly increased ≥2-fold (P < 0.05) in F11- and/or CFT073-infected zebrafish embryos at 6 and/or 12 hpi, relative to those in mock-infected controls.

  • b The reference numbers listed are those of studies that implicate the specified functional categories or selected gene products in human sepsis and related syndromes but do not necessarily include all of the pertinent publications.

  • c ROS, reactive oxygen species.