TABLE 1

Characteristics of CRS patientsa

TABLE 1
  • a Age, sex, the 22-item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22) score, the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) score, medical treatment (nasal/oral steroids and antibiotics in last 3 months), smoking behavior, and a history of FESS were recorded via a questionnaire and, if available, checked in the patient’s medical record. SNOT-22 and VAS are widely validated scoring systems whose scores reflect the severity of the disease. Both scoring systems are evaluated by use of a list of disease-related symptoms (58, 59). Also, phenotypic characteristics of self-reported asthma, allergies (based on total IgE and the results of skin prick tests for allergies to common inhalant allergens), and nasal polyps were documented. Lastly, the concentrations of different inflammatory cytokines (periostin, interleukin-4 [IL-4], IL-13, IL-5, and interferon gamma [IFN-γ]) in serum samples were determined. IL-5, IL-4, and IL-13 are important regulators of type 2 inflammation in CRSwNP patients, and IFN-γ is involved in non-type 2 inflammation in CRSsNP patients. Additionally, periostin has been postulated to be a potential diagnostic marker for asthma and is involved in many aspects of allergic inflammation, including the development of a Th2 immune response. NA, not available.