TABLE 4

PERMANOVA for etiology groups and variables

PERMANOVA variableP valuea
Group (iatrogenic, idiopathic, mucosal control, stenosis control)0.0008
Tissue type (scar, nonscar)0.0346
Etiology (iatrogenic stenosis, idiopathic stenosis, nonstenosis)0.0113
Sample site (supraglottis, glottis, subglottis, trachea)0.0077
Sex (female, male)0.0246
Smoking status (smoking history, nonsmoker)0.0545
Patient (comparisons among individual patients)0.0001
  • a P values of <0.05 indicate statistical significance.