TABLE 1 

Demographic features of PCV-unvaccinated and PCV7-vaccinated, HIV-uninfected children at two study visits when nasopharyngeal bacterial colonization was analyzeda

Demographic featurebValueb for 9-mo-old childrenP valueValue for 16-mo-old childrenP value
PCV-unvaccinatedPCV7-vaccinatedPCV-unvaccinatedPCV7-vaccinated
No. of children enrolled250251250251
No. of NP swabs available for
molecular analysis
181175193164
HIV status
    Exposed, n (%)111 (61.3)104 (59.4)0.4099 (51.3)97 (59.1)0.24
    Unexposed, n (%)70 (38.7)71 (40.6)94 (48.7)67 (40.9)
Birth wt (g), mean (SD)3,061 (440)3,097 (482)0.453,079 (427)3,126 (476)0.43
Male sex, n (%)87 (48.1)96 (54.9)0.1299 (51.3)89 (54.3)0.25
Race
    Black African, n (%)181 (100)150 (85.7)<0.001193 (100)132 (80.5)<0.001
    Mixed ancestry, n (%)25 (14.3)32 (19.5)
Smoking household contact,
n (%)
66 (36.5)81 (42.3)0.00365 (33.7)64 (39)0.004
Received co-trimoxazole
prophylaxis, n (%)
95 (52.5)81 (46.3)0.271 (36.8)68 (41.5)0.15
No. of children <5 years old
in the household, mean (SD)
1.6 (0.8)1.6 (0.7)0.61.6 (0.8)1.5 (0.8)0.21
No. of household contacts,
mean (SD)
5.3 (2.2)5.2 (2.3)0.815.2 (2.1)5.1 (2.4)0.17
Day care attendance, n (%)40 (22.1)91 (52)<0.00172 (37.3)81 (53.6)0.002
Breastfeeding, n (%)41 (22.7)44 (25.1)0.3337 (19.2)38 (23.3)0.43
Age (mo) at visit, mean (SD)9 (0.7)9.4 (0.5)<0.00115.4 (0.4)16 (1.4)<0.001
  • a The Pearson χ2 test or Student t test was used to compare baseline characteristics between the two study cohorts, and demographic features with a P value of <0.2 were included as possible cofounders in multivariate analysis. PCV7, 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.

  • b Values are the number of children (n) and percentage unless specified otherwise. NP, nasopharyngeal; SD, standard deviation.